|4 Live systems|
|→||4.1.3 Use DKtoolian|
|Clone one master to multiple recipients|
|Traditional hard disk vs. SSD|
If a site owns a number of equal PCs an administrator can install one PC as the ``master''. After installation the entire disk contents or the contents of relevant partitions is transferred to all the other PCs to avoid individual installations on each PC.
Several methods are available:
For all methods shown above we can save data on an image
For data streams we can use dk-send/dk-recv, udp-sender/udp-receiver or netcat to transfer the data directly from the master PC to the image server or to the recipient(s). Compression is recommended to reduce network traffic.
Other methods require access to the data as files, so we can use either a portable disk, NFS or SMB file servers or — for clonezilla — SSH access.
A computer image, disk, image, image data stream, archive or
archive data stream of a computer can also be used as
system backup of the computer to avoid a complete
OS+software re-installation i.e. after hardware problems, setup and
Applying the system backup to the computer it was made from returns that computer to the timestamp the backup was made.
Note: In addition to the system backup typically only made in large intervals or before or after adding new software you need regular periodic data backup. So after a crash you can restore OS and software to a working state from the last working system backup and data to the most recent state from the data backup.
Data backup is out of the scope of this page, here we are dealing with system backup only.
For data transmission from one sender to multiple recipients we have several choices:
For traditional hard disks you can use all the methods shown on the next page Clone using TCP (dk-send + dk-recv).
SSD and other FLASH-based storage devices differ significantly
from traditional (spinning) disks.
I recommend to read How to damage a FLASH storage device and for german users the articles series about SSD on Linux in german language.
mount /dev/sda1 /mnt fstrim -v /mnt umount /dev/sda1To fstrim an NTFS partition you need ntfs-3g version 2015.3.14 or newer, Debian Stretch has 2016.2.22AR.1+dfsg-1 at this time (2017-08-12). On Debian Jessie version 2014.2.15AR.2-1+deb8u3 is too old.